The 1901 WPHL season was the fourth season of operation for the Western Pennsylvania Hockey League. Four Pittsburgh-area teams competed in the season, in which all games were played at the Duquesne Gardens. The hockey team of the Keystone Bicycle Club was admitted to the league. The team, which consisted of students from Western University (today known as the University of Pittsburgh) and Carnegie Tech, began play around 1895 as an independent team. The 1900-01 season also marked the final season that the Duquesne Country & Athletic Club's team played in the league, until the 1908-09 season.
The Pittsburgh Athletic Club repeated as the league champion, to win their third and final league title.